Etimologia : Da un punto di vista etimologico  corrente, la parola Confraternita è ordinariamente fatta derivare dal tardo latino, confratĕrnitas (con = insieme + fratĕrnitas = “fraternità”). Ed il suo significato attuale – che il Guicciardini, a partire dal 1540, tenta di riassumere nella formula:“un’associazione di laici avente per fine, pratiche di carità e di culto” – prende origine ed è linguisticamente giustificato dal soggettivo ed interessato utilizzo – nella Vulgate di Gerolamo (III secolo) – del concetto di “fraternità”, intesa come “amicizia”, “familiarità” e “collaborazione tra cristiani” (Paolo, Lettera ai Romani 12, 10). Oggi, ci appare ovvio, dunque, che la voce confraternita tenda comunemente ad indicarci una qualsiasi comunitas laica o religiosa, all’interno della quale degli affiliati – indipendentemente dalle loro origini etniche e culturali, e/o dalle loro estrazioni sociali – si associno, si sottopongano a delle regole ed a dei precetti comuni e scelgano di operare congiuntamente, essendo individualmente e collettivamente animati dalla convinzione di perseguire un medesimo scopo, nell’ambito di una qualsiasi “fraternità” dello spirito e/o della mente. In realtà, l’impiego del vocabolo “fraternità” in questo senso, è una forzatura glottologica per malcelati interessi ideologico-teologici, in quanto nella lingua latina originaria la locuzione fratĕrnitas, ātis stava ad indicare una naturale e consanguinea fraternità o parentela tra fratelli o cugini della stessa famiglia, curia o tribù e/o del medesimo popolo. Il termine fratĕrnitas, infatti, prende direttamente origine dal sostantivo maschile latino frāter, tris che significa “fratello” in senso carnale (Cicerone, Epistulae ad Quintum fratrem, 1, 3, 1) ed ha un suo corrispettivo, sia in greco antico, φρἀτηρ, φρὰτόρ (phrater, phràtôr = “fratello”, nel senso estensivo di membro di una medesima tribù = φρἀτρία – phratría = curia) che – come precisa Émile Benveniste – in sanscrito, BHRÂTHÂR (“fratello”, in senso stretto); in antico persiano, brâtar (idem); in antico slavo, bratru (idem); in antico prussiano, bratis (idem); in gotico, brôthar (idem); in antico anglo-sassone, brôdhor (idem); in inglese, brother (idem); in irlandese, bràthir (idem); etc. Ne sono un palese e perfetto esempio, i Fratres Arvales (“Fratelli Arvàli”): un Collegio di dodici flamines (sacerdoti romani, con rango di Pontefici maggiori) che, nel corso delle feste Ambarvalia (da ambire arva = “girare attorno ai campi”, per propiziare i buoni raccolti e placare l’eventuale furore di Marte), vestivano la toga praetexta (orlata di porpora) ed inghirlandavano le loro teste con delle spighe che erano, a loro volta, legate e tenute insieme da nastri bianchi. Come è risaputo, i primi Fratres Arvales, secondo la tradizione quiritaria, sarebbero stati personalmente scelti da Romolo (il primo Rex dell’Urbs quadrata) tra i figli naturali di Acca Larenzia (la sua ex nutrice), per celebrare uno dei più antichi e sentiti culti della Roma arcaica: quello della Dea Dia (l’equivalente della Dea Cerere) che veniva celebrato nel periodo di Luna piena del mese di Maggio di ogni anno. Quei Fratres, sin dalla loro prima manifestazione pubblica, si “erano naturalmente e spontaneamente associati, riuniti ed organizzati nel sodalizio degli Arvales, senza l’ausilio o il supporto di nessun artificio esterno: vale a dire, senza nessuna elaborazione intellettuale preventiva, né una qualsiasi costruzione o strutturazione ideologica, politica, giuridica o amministrativa preconcetta. In rapporto a quel loro esempio di sodalizio naturale (o Innata Societas), la Confraternita – come la conosciamo da ormai circa 17 secoli – è semplicemente una Simulata Societas: un tentativo, cioè, di imitare la società naturale. In altre parole, è una comunitas, una factio, una secta che tende a formarsi e/o a costituirsi a partire dall’apprezzamento individuale di un’idea o di un punto di vista, e dall’adesione personale ai termini di una soggettiva ed arbitraria costruzione intellettuale e/o di un’unilaterale descrizione o interpretazione della realtà e/o di una visione parziale e riduttiva dell’uomo, della società e del mondo e/o di una specifica (creduta, ipotizzata o pretesa) rivelazione d’ordine divino (da Lezioni sull’Islam di A. B. Mariantoni).
 
Storia delle Confraternite

Abbastanza diffuse nel Cilento, le odierne Confraternite laico-religiose o religiose tout-court – dopo essere inizialmente sorte su basi laiche e con scopi prettamente sociali, di culto o di beneficienza – sono ormai il risultato di numerose e variegate trasformazioni che esse stesse hanno subito nel corso dei secoli. Molte di queste Confraternite, inoltre, da tempo radicate nell’Italia meridionale, hanno incominciato a prendere origine nel centro-nord della Penisola. Una di queste, ad esempio – che, a mia conoscenza non è sato tramandato il nome – esordì nel borgo rurale di Valdesa e nelle città di Ivrea, Modena e Ravenna. Confraternita che, solo più tardi, ritroveremo a Napoli. Mentre nel Cilento, prima del XV secolo, non se ne aveva ancora nessuna notizia. Storicamente, infatti, è soltanto a partire del XVII secolo che la maggior parte delle Confraternite attualmente esistenti in questa regione, incominciarono ad operare ed a farsi conoscere. Punto di forza della tradizione culturale cilentana, le attuali Confraternite sono il frutto – come dicevo – di una lunga e travagliata metamorfosi. Nate come associazioni laiche, queste ultime si sono, nel tempo, pian piano avvicinate alla Chiesa, a discapito dell’aspetto civico-assistenziale che inizialmente le aveva caratterizzate e contraddistinte. Nella loro prima fase di evoluzione, infatti, le Confraternite in questione non erano affatto composte ed animate da monaci, né da ecclesiastici, ma esclusivamente da laici che vivevano all’interno di cenobi o di conventi. In un secondo momento, invece, le medesime Confraternite le ritroviamo indiscriminatamente assoggettate sotto l’autorità e la giurisdizione delle strutture religiose della Chiesa. Inutile chiedersene il motivo… Come ormai è storicamente accertato, la Chiesa – nella sua fobica e costante preoccupazione di affermare e difendere i suoi dogmi ideologico-teologici assoluti ed indiscutibili e di reprimere, con qualunque mezzo, ogni forma di spontaneo ed autonomo atteggiamento/comportamento e di libera di riflessione – vedeva come “fumo negli occhi” le diverse e variegate forme di associazionismo naturale che esistevano all’interno dei territori di sua influenza culturale e politica. E, per evitare che queste ultime potessero religiosamente sfuggire al suo controllo, instituì,  nei loro confronti – come era già avvenuto per i numerosi Ordini monacali spontanei – una precisa e capillare sorveglianza e supervisione canonica. E’, dunque, in quel preciso contesto che, a partire dal Concilio di Toledo (633), il corpo episcopale della Chiesa fece in modo che anche i laici delle suddette Confraternite fossero sottoposti ad alcune vincolanti e costringenti “regole”. Tra cui, quella di imporre loro di accettare e sottoscrivere pubblicamente un impegno formale – approvato dal Vescovo della diocesi ed assunto da parte di ogni singolo confrate dei diversi sodalizi – con il quale ogni confratello acconsentiva di andare a vivere presso un monastero, controllato da ecclesiastici. I primi confratelli, nella loro versione laica, furono i Frates pœnitentes: dei “fratelli”, cioè, che conducevano una vita di penitenza e di osservanza dei precetti evangelici, e che a differenza dei monaci veri e propri, erano considerati soltanto frates. Si racconta che – per difendersi dai rapinatori – i membri di quelle Confraternite organizzassero delle riunioni segrete. Adunanze che si sarebbero svolte il primo giorno di ogni mese, presso il refettorio del loro convento o la dimora privata di qualche loro confratello. Da cui, la denominazione Kalendae: una vera e propria festa rituale che consisteva nella celebrazione di una messa, un colloquio spirituale ed un convivio offerto dai fratelli più agiati. Il pranzo, in quell’occasione, era consumato in silenzio, pregando ed illustrando i vari precetti. Sotto la loro forma primitiva, quel genere di Confraternite durarono fino al XII secolo. In seguito, invece, come ho già accennato, furono recuperate ed inquadrate dalla Chiesa e regolamentate da una serie di prescrizioni ed ordinanze. Quella loro nuova “spiritualità” si può riassumere in questi termini: la necessità di avere coscienza della propria peccaminosità; di considerare Dio come giudice; di redimere i moribondi dell’altra vita, con messe che propiziavano il perdono (messa che sarebbe stata replicata, anche nei diversi anniversari della loro morte). In quello stesso periodo, sorsero tutta una serie di Congregazione religiose. Tra queste, gli Ordini Mendicanti dei francescani e dei domenicani; gli Spiritualisti di Gioacchino di Fiore; i Flagellanti, con le loro processioni penitenziali, etc. I membri di quelle Confraternite si assoggettarono alle pratiche del culto pubblico ed alle preghiere giornaliere precritte dal Vaticano. I loro membri potevano essere facilmente identificati e riconosciuti, già dal loro abbigliamento. Essi, infatti, non portavano armi ed indossavano un saio di colore marrone (i Francescani) o grigio (i Domenicani), il cingolo alla vita ed un lungo bastone. In quel periodo, l’antico spirito dei Fratelli flagellanti, riviveva nella predicazione di Gioacchino da Fiore e nelle processioni dei penitenti incappucciati. Questi ultimi, percorrevano le vie cittadine, soprattutto nel periodo della quaresima, percuotendosi il petto, le spalle ed il dorso con delle pietre, delle fruste munite di spine o con delle pesanti catene. In seguito, alcune Confraternite incominciarono a specializzarsi, accreditarsi e distinguersi in “categorie”. Tra queste: le Confraternite di mestiere, dove si esercitava la conciliazione, in caso di dispute, il mutuo soccorso, il riscatto degli schiavi, nonché il culto di un Santo protettore della “categoria”, da parte di coloro che svolgevano il medesimo lavoro; quelle di devozione che concentravano la loro attività nella perpetuazione e l’incremento di un culto particolare; quella, infine, dei penitenti che trovò il suo punto di forza, nella lotta contro le eresie ed in azioni caritativo-spirituali, come le opere di assistenza personale ed ospedaliera, gli aiuti ai moribondi e la sepoltura solenne, sempre nell’ambito dei precetti cristiani. Nel XIV secolo, a causa della grave crisi economica che si viveva in quell’epoca, le Confraternite – particolarmente incoraggiate dalla Chiesa che vedeva nei loro interventi caritatevoli, la possibilità diretta o indiretta di estendere la propria influenza religiosa – si moltiplicarono in tutta Europa. Nel XV secolo, invece, le medesime Confraternite cambiarono le loro finalità ufficiali, trasformandosi, da sodalizi a scopo sociale, in associazioni a contenuto prettamente devozionale. Dopo la bolla “Dominus Noster”, del papa Paolo III, emanata nel 1539, le Confraternite intitolate al Corpo di Cristo o al Santo Sacramento o al Santo Rosario, divennero delle vere e proprie fondazioni che ebbero a gestire anche degli ingenti patrimoni. Quelle Confraternite – che fino a quel momento erano state esclusivamente composte da laici – godevano di uno spontaneo ed entusiasta favore popolare, in quanto tendevano a comportarsi e ad agire come degli organismi attivi, in materia di assistenza agli ammalati, ai bisognosi ed ai pellegrini. A partire dal XVI secolo, invece, come abbiamo visto, la Chiesa – con la scusa d’intervenire e correggere “eventuali abusi”, s’intromise nell’organizzazione interna di quelle Confraternite e, soprattutto, nell’amministrazione diretta dei loro beni. Ad esempio, con la bolla “Quaecumque”, emanata dal papa Clemente VII, il 7 Dicembre 1604, si stabilirono le norme per la nascita e l’azione di nuove Confraternite. Da quel momento, queste ultime divennero sempre più potenti, con una presenza massiccia di banche e istituti di credito che gestivano capitali liquidi e beni immobili. Il tutto, fino al XVII secolo, quando le autorità civili, in ossequio all’ideologia Illuminista allora imperante, ridimensionarono grandemente gli organismi legati alla Chiesa ed il loro potere economico. Altro elemento che contribuì ad offuscare l’iinfluenza di quelle Confraternite, fu il ridimensionamento delle messe funebri solenni che furono studiatamente sostituite da cerimonie più modeste e meno esose. Nel Regno di Napoli, quel loro ridimensionamento pubblico avvenne con molta decisione e radicalità, tanto che venne addirittura fatto divieto, ai privati, di lasciare, nei loro testamenti, beni e capitali ad organismi laico-religiosi. Fu poi rivendicato il diritto dello Stato, di conferire la personalità giuridica alle Confraternite, limitando il diritto del Vescovo di controllare i conti di quei sodalizi, che furono invece sottoposti ad un tribunale specialmente incaricato di quell’incombenza. Il re di Napoli sancì aggiuntivamente che tutti gli ecclesiastici che ricoprivano delle cariche all’interno delle Confraternite, dovessero essere sostituiti con dei laici e che ogni atto di vendita, dovesse avere l’approvazione del monarca. Lo Stato – in periodo napoleonico – avocò a se tutte le funzioni sociali che avevano precedentemente espletato le Confraternite e, di fatto, soppresse l’insieme di queste ultime, in quanto considerate inutili. Quelle riforme, però, non furono di facile applicazione, in quanto la maggior parte delle Confraternite erano troppo radicate sul territorio – in modo particolare nelle zone rurali, come quella del Cilento – e, in quella veste, anche se con molta circospezione, continuarono a svolgere un ruolo fondamentale nell’assistenza agli indigenti. Continuarono altresì a garantire un onorevole funerale ai poveri, ad offrire soccorso in caso d’infermità, ad intervenire nell’attenuazione della povertà attraverso i Monti di Pietà, per cui molte di esse, senza il permesso del re, continuarono ad avere come punto di riferimento il Vescovo. Con la Restaurazione, gran parte delle Confraternite che l’epopea napoleonica aveva soppresso, rifiorirono. Ma i loro scopi tenderanno piuttosto a ridimensionarsi ai soli bisogni spirituali, alla rituale partecipazione dei loro membri alle processioni, all’accompagnamento dei defunti nei funerali, agli atti devozionali e religiosi, in particolare nel corso delle feste di Pasqua. L’ultima legge che regolamenta le Confraternite, è la No. 6972 del 1890. Ribadita successivamente, nel 1929, a seguito del Concordato dello Stato Italiano con la Santa Sede, vi vengono precisate e distinte: le Confraternite con scopo di culto e giurisdizione ecclesiastica; e quelle che, perseguendo scopi di beneficienza, rientrano nella sfera d’influenza e di potere del Diritto pubblico italiano (Notizie tratte da Confraternite del Cilento di Amedeo La Greca).    

                                                                                    Giuliana Poli
 

 

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Перебирая в уме все свои желания, она "Учет затрат на производство и калькулирование себестоимости"старалась понять, "Учет затрат на производство и калькулирование себестоимости продукции"какое же из них самое заветное.

Однако "Учет затрат на производство и калькуляция себестоимости продукции растениеводства"на производство и калькулирование себестоимости продукции”>Учет "Учет затрат на производство и реализацию продукции"затрат на "Учет затрат на производство методом ‘Стандарт-костинг’"производство и калькулирование себестоимости продукции"не успели они начать, "Учет затрат на производство по статьям калькуляции"как послышалось легкое царапанье по стеклу, и за окном мелькнула неясная черная тень.

Для того, чтобы перенестись в незримый мир духов, необходимо достаточно сильное заклинание, размышлял доктор Фауст.

Что на роду написано, то нельзя зачеркнуть.

Карлос "книгу между небом и землей скачать бесплатно" нередко говорил о своем намерении уехать в страну американцев.

И "rpg игра скачать" тут мне вспомнился "игра лига скорости" один случай из времен нашего первого знакомства с Пауэллом правда, не слишком "Патч корд 5e" существенный.

Когда я говорил о ссоре, я имею в виду не "песни ляпис трубецкого скачать" себя, а "скачать теккен 3 на компьютере" его.

Вы еще не слышали всех показаний.

Но он погас, едва "скачать на телефон что нибудь" она ступила на порог хакале.

Это сказал молодой скотовод, тот самый, что уже "лего звездные войны видео игра" и прежде вступался за Карлоса.

О, "программа скорости интернета скачать"а Голливуд весь фальшивый "российская песня скачать"настолько, что и насмешки не "скачать песни из мультфильма спирит"заслуживает,-сказал я.

Пойдемте,-сказал он "платформенные игры на двоих"и пошел впереди, а я, подталкиваемый, "бухгалтерский учет книгу скачать"следом.

Карлос прекрасно "скачать самоубийц"понимал, что с ним "Крис касперски ака мыщъх"расправятся.

Мы уедем на север, "скачать журнальный ключ для доктора веб"в Англию, во Францию "книга правдиной скачать"все равно куда.

Мужчины снимают куртки, "скачать ревизора"подбрасывают в воздух шляпы.

Из замаскированного диктатора он вырос бы до живого Бога.

В последний раз "Темная сестра" я видел ее, когда "Р Наклей и раскрась № НР1150 Hot Wheels" она сидела в карете "Атлас животных" скорой помощи возле тела своего мужа, глядя "Крокодил Гена и грабители" на меня со "Пистолет с музыкой Амнезия творца" спокойной ненавистью.

Боюсь, что могу рассказать немного о "Мы делили апельсин" том, что тебя ожидает.

у "Барбекю" одних друзей неподалеку от "Взгляд тигра" Харроу-роуд.

Он сунул Кацу под нос свою записную книжку.

Эти "Русская рулетка" две кляксы бродили по "Меч Предназначения" ближайшей лужайке и портили весь вид.

Теперь долгих слов не потребуется.

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